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Диплом: Стилистический компонент слова и его лексикографическое отражение бесплатно рефераты

third part.

OALED suggests a bit different grouping of the stylistic notations (Appendix II)

1. Currency, labels denoting words which are not used or used by some older

speaker s & some words that are found mainly in books written in

the first half of thi s century: dated archaic.

2. Region, labels denoting words which restricted to one country or area

Brit US Scot S.African Austr NZ

Here belongs dial - the label that refers to words &

meanings that are restricted to particular regions of the British Isles not

including Scotland & Ireland. So this very dictionary uses the label

dial mainly as territorial characteristic of British Isles, though still

belonging to special colloquial vocabulary.

3. Register, labels denoting words which must be used with particular care

because they reflect a special relatioship between the speakers or a special

occasion or setting (which could vary from an official ceremony to a relaxed

meeting between friends)

! - denotes words or meanings likely to be thought offencive or shocking or

indecert. (though not necessarily by eveyone or on every occasion)

In LDELC they use the label

taboo to denote such a group of words to show limitations on use.

sl -this label denotes a group of words inventive & often

colourful items generally used in a very informal spoken context. Such an item

usually belongs to or originate in the language of a particular social or

occupation group (e.g. soldiers, nurses, prisoner s).

In LDELC this label has practically the same meaning but is found in the

other group of labels which deals with the situations and often this label is

used with the label taboo infml - denotes informal words &

meanings, i.e. those indicating a close personal relationship &

an unofficial occasion or getting

fml - denotes formal words & meanings , i.e. those chosen when

speaking or writing in a serious or an official context to someone who is not

a close friend or relation. These labels are grouped together with the label sl


rhet - rhetorical items are associated with writing or speech on seri

ous or elevated themes, especially on very formal occasions. the use of such

words elsewhere suggests a self-consciously pompous speaker or writer.

There is no such a label in LDELC, but this very label juxtapose with the

label rhet in LERD & ERD. Thus we may infer that this group of

labels denote the words belonging to practically all the layers of the

word-stock of the English Language.(Appendix IV,VI).

4. Evaluation, labels denoting a particular attitude towards the person,

thing or action referred to.

derog - that one desapprovse of or scorns the person or thing

referred to or described by those.

approv - the opposite of derogatory ones, they suggest approval of or

admiration for the thing or person referred to or described.

offensive - words to address or refer to people usually with

the delibarate intention of their race or religion

euph - to refer to something unpleasant or painful in a

pleasant (because more indirect) way.

In LDELC the label derog is opposed to the label apprec

& there is no such a label as approv . The label

offensive is not presented in this dictionary.

iron - the label denotes words that are intended to convey a sense

opposite to the apparent sense.

fig - a figurative sense of a word is a non -literal (often

metaforical) sense which can be related by native speakers to an original in

the past, but it is no longer perceived, the label is not u sed.

The label iron is not given in LDELC, the label fig

though represented in this dictionary, is not considered as the stylistical


joc - label, denoting words which are considered to be funny,

whethergrim or innocent humor is meant. This label is close to humor

LDELC though they are still different,

sexsist - label denotes words that express (sometimes uncontious)

discriminatory or patronizing attitude towards someone of the opposite sex.

They are almost always words used by men about or to women & can be used to

express approval in a man-to-man context

Thi s label is rather new and modern and it is connected with the woman's

movement. In LDELC this label is absent.

5. Technical fields - words & meanings which are normaly confined

to technical use botany



law physics

medical art

anat my cinema or TV

grammar computing


The terms covering the technical fields are more wildely represented in OALED

than in LDELC. In LDELC we find the labels law, med, naut, tech,

denoting the technical fields & belonging to the group, which shows special

fields or subjects. The label tech covers all the labels which are not

represented in LDELC, but are widly used in OALED.

If the classifications of labels in LDELC & OALED are close to

each other somehow, we can't say the same of WNCD. This Dictionary

differentiate three types of status labels. They are temporal, regional

& stylistic. The stylistic labels are con sidered here as a signal that

a word or a sense of a word is not part of the standard vocabulary of English

.(Appendix III)

1 . The temporal label

obs - for obsolete - means that there i s no evidence of use since 1755.

archaic - means that a word or sense once in common use is found today

only sporadically or in special contexts. The label obs is not

used neither in LDELC nor in OALED.

Galperin I.R. gives the following definition of the word obsolete -

is a group of archaic words that have already gone completely out of use bu t

are still recogni zed by the English -speaking community,

2. Regional labels denote words which are limited in use to a specif ic

region of the US. The labels here correspond loosely to one of the areas

defined in Hans Kurath's Word Geography of the Ea stern United States. The

adverb chiefly presents a label when the word has some currency outside the

specified region & a double label is used to indicate considerable currency

in each of two specific regions.

NewEng South chiefly North Southwest West Midland Northaest.

Words current in all regions of the US have no labels.

A word or meaning limited in use to one of the other countries of the English

-speaking world has an appropriate regional label. It is explained by the fact

that the Dictionary is based mainly on American English.

chiefly Scot Irish Austr SoAfr Brit Canad.

dial - this label belongs to this very group & indicates that the

pattern of use of a word or a meaning is too complex for summary labeling, it

usually includes several regional varieties of American English o r of American

& British English.

dial Brit - indicates currency in several dialects of the British

commonwealth; it indicates currency in one or more provincial dialects of


3. Stylistic labels

sl. - is used with words or meanings that are especially appropriate

in contexts of extreme informality, that usually have a currency not limited to

a particular region or area of interest, & that are composed typically of

shortened forms or extravagant or facetious figures of speech.

non-standard - is used for a few words or meanings that are

dissaproved by many but that have some currency in reputable contexts.

substandard — is used for those words or meanings that conform to a

widespread pattern of usage that differs in choice of word or form f rom that

of the prestige group of the community,

These labels given in WNCD differentiate two main groups of the word -stock

of the English Language (which were considered above). But they don't point out

all the peculiarities of the word, its stylistical overtones.

In LDELC & OALED these two groups are represented by a number of

specific labels which give a more exact description of the words peculiarities

& usage. But at the same time there is "a subject label or guide phrase"

that is used to indicate

n the specific application of a word or meaning a criptology, a timepiece

n denoting terms (technical field) usage, which is introdused by a

lightface dash

used as a direction in music

usu considered vulgar

usu used disparagingly

n some usages are used in def initions.

used as a Brit,

title used esp. to express sudden pain.

Thus as we may see the WNCD'S treatment of stylistical notations is rather

peculiar. Instead of the labels, accepted for example in LDELC & OALED,

explanaitory phrases or guides are used.

And though nonstandard & substandard labels include precticaly

all the layers of the English Language, they don't cover all the stylistic

peculiarities that may have a word or a meaning.

Different approaches to stylistic notations influences a great deal the

understanding the exact information that this or that word carries.

The comparative analyses shows that differen t dictionaries give different

labels (in some cases) to one & the same word.

E, g.

prick - in LDELC this word is given as taboo, in OALED as

!sl , in WNCD as usu. considered vulgar, LE _RD as груб

. , in ERD as груб.

the weaker sex in LDELC it has the label pomp ., in OALED -

dated sexiest & in the other dictionaries this word -group is not marked

at all

In this case we may deal with the facts of new tendencies which are not

registered yet in the older editions of the dictionaries.

lovely is a very interesting case -in LDELC it is marked

infml.,becoming rare, in OALED - infml sexist , in WNCD it is

not marked at all, in LERD it ha s the label амер ., & in

the others it is not marked either.

nick - BrE infml, - LDELC

BrE sl - OALED жарг - LERD разг . -ERD

In this case it is difficult even to identify to which layer of the English

Language this word belongs & in which situations it is preferred. For the

other examples see the Application VI.

We may make the conclusion that it would be better if al the dictionaries

agreed to one and the same system of stylistic notations for the purpose not to

mislead the users in a proper choice of the word More over , to our mind , the

classification suggested by Galperin could be taken or considered the bases of

the system of stylistic notations.

3. Classification of stylistic notations in Longman Dictionary of English

Language and Culture

The word can have different stylistic characteristics ranging from regional

usage to the personal attitude of the user. That is why it is natural to

suppose that there is a great number of words which have more that one

stylistic notations.

The comparative analyses suggested in the previous part and the proper

analyses of the stylistic notation's varieties used in LDELC conf irm such


It was interesting to analyse different types of labels & their

combinations used in LDELC. As it turned out a word may have up to five

stylistic characterizations that are reflected in the notations. E.g.

bum(2) AmE & AustrE derog sl This word has four indexes shown by

mean s of the styli stic notations,

buster sl, esp.AmE.oflen derog There are five indexes of the styli

stic notation in this word.

amniocentes is med — only one index.

Here we deal with the words, which can be used in different regions, can

belong to different layers of the word- stock & have different stylistic

colours expressing the attitude. Some of the word's characteristics

suggest choice of usage.

behold esp-tit or old use

buggery BrE taboo or law

Taking into consideration all these facts all the labels & their

combination s used in LDELC were classified as follows:

1 . Labels of sementico-functional indication.

2. Label s of quantitative indication of indexes in one notation.

All the labels in LDELC we may devide into four stylistical groups (Appendix


1.Stylistical labels (pure)

2. Stylistico-functional labels

3. Stylistico-sementical labels

4. Stylistico-sementico-functional labels

Stylistical labels include all the labels denoting words which are

limited to particular parts of the world or area, as the regional

indication is one of the microcomponents of the stylistic component of the word

& purely shows that the word is stylistically marked: carrfge dock


aficinado Sp

abortion Lat

bratwurst Germ

accommodations AmE

agent provocateur Fr

From the stylistical layers point of view here we find words belonging to

common literary vocabulary. ( foriegnisms, barbarisms)

Stylistico -functional labels include the labels denoting words

according to their usage & functioning. Here we may point out:

-purely stylistico- functional labels

access card tdmk it means that the word functions in economics and bu siness,

AC/DC sl the word is used by a certain group of people -mixed

stylistico -functional labels

beaut AmE&AustrE infml the word is u sed both in American

& Australian English in informal situat ion s, billy-o BrE old-fash

sl the word belongs to British English and is used as the outdated slang.

bevy dial sl the word is limited to a particular area & is there

as slang. amp fml-tech it is a term used in formal situations.

Here we may find the words belonging to all the layers of the word-stock of

the English Language. As beaut belongs to common literary

vocabulary, bevy — to special colloquial nonstandard (non-literal) vocabulary .

Some words having the notation AmE old-fash, SrE becoming old-fash

may be referred to special literal vocabulary. Such labels as infml

becoming rare, infl esp.BrE belonging to words which come from common

colloquial vocabulary. But there is a number of labels that makes it difficult

to identify to which layer this or that word belongs because the natations may

indicate different layers.

old-fash BrE infml — as we considered it earlier the label old-fash

indicates special literary vocabulary & archaic words in particular, the

label infml evidently shows common colloquial vocabulary.

BrE oid-fash sl- where sl indicated nonstandard group of the

word-stock. The existence of such labels confirms the fact that there are

differen t degrees of bookishness &colloquialness. In accordance to the

combinations of labels the words marked, e.g. BrEinfmIsl or BrE

old-fash sl may be found bordering on common literary &

special colloquial vocabulary, such words may pass into another layer, (taking

into con sideration I.R. Calpe rin point of view).

Stylistico-sementical labels indicate emotional state,

attitude of the speaker by means of the marked word, in other words this label

shows the type of connotation that is typical of the word. E.g. bouncing

(of babies esp) appnec. - this word is u sually u sed about healthy and

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