Курсовая: Теории лидерства
contingent on performance and in a fair manner, will clarify expectancies of
subordinates concerning work goals and rewards, and will effectively motivate
subordinates. This theory also predicts that leader consideration toward
subordinates provides the psychological support subordinates require,
especially in times of stress and frustration.
Path-goal theory suggests that either participative or directive leader behavior
can provide psychological structure and direction and therefore clarify
subordinates' role demands. Theoretically, directive leader behavior will be
dysfunctional and participative leader behavior will be functional when
subordinates are highly involved in their work, perceive themselves as having a
high level of task related knowledge, and/or prefer a high level of autonomy.
Meta-analyses of 135 relationships tested in prior studies provide support for
these assertions (Wofford & Liska, 1993).
Dissonance Theory and Competing Values
According to cognitive dissonance theory, individuals experience
anxiety-inducing cognitive dissonance when their self-evaluative cognitions,
feelings and behavior are in conflict with each other (Festinger, 1980). Under
such conditions, individuals are strongly motivated to reduce the dissonance by
changing one or more of the dissonant components--either their behavior, their
cognitions, or their feelings. It follows from dissonance theory that when
leaders appeal to ideological values of followers and also administer extrinsic
material rewards strictly contingent on follower performance, they will
induce cognitive dissonance in followers. Offering strong extrinsic incentives
for doing what is claimed to be morally correct will theoretically induce
dissonance, and is likely to undermine the effects of leaders' appeals to
ideological values. From dissonance theory, we would expect that with the
exception of social rewards such as approval and recognition, contingent reward
behavior on the part of leaders will undermine the effects of value based
Equity theory asserts that when individuals perceive the ratio of their
contributions to their rewards (intrinsic or extrinsic) to be equal to the
ratio of contributions to rewards of others, they will believe that they are
treated fairly (Adams, 1963). We expect that under conditions of perceived
unfairness followers will feel resentment, be demotivated, will not support
and may even resist attempts by leaders to influence them.
Mischel (1973) has argued that the psychological strength of situations
influences the degree to which individual dispositions such as motives or
personality traits are expressed behaviorally. Strong situations are
situations in which there are strong behavioral norms, strong incentives for
specific types of behaviors, and clear expectations concerning what behaviors
are rewarded. According to this argument, in strong situations, motivational
or personality tendencies are constrained and there will be little behavioral
expression of individual dispositions. Thus, in organizations that are
highly formalized and governed by well-established role expectations, norms,
rules, policies and procedures, there is less opportunity for organizational
members to behaviorally express their dispositional tendencies.
Theoretically, in strong psychological situations, leader motives have less
influence on leader behavior, and leader behavior has less influence on
subordinates and on organizational outcomes than in weak psychological
situations. Studies by Monson, Healy and Chernick (1982), Lee, Ashford, and
Bobko (1990), and Barrick and Mount (1993) have demonstrated support for
Mischel's situational strength argument.
THE VALUE BASED LEADERSHIP THEORY
This theory consists of six axioms and twenty-seven propositions that relate
leader behavior, leader motives, and situational variables to leader
The Parsimonious Meta–Proposition of Value Based Leadership
Value based leadership theory is based on the meta–proposition that non-
conscious motives and motivation based on strongly internalized values is
stronger, more pervasive, and more enduring than motivation based on
instrumental calculations of anticipated rewards or motivation based on
threat and avoidance of punishment. The axioms and propositions that follow
are derived from and can all be explained in terms of this parsimonious
The Value Based Leader Behavior Syndrome
Behaviors that characterize value based leadership include a) articulation of a
challenging vision of a better future to which followers are claimed to have a
moral right; b) unusual leader determination, persistence, and self-sacrifice
in the interest of the vision and the values inherent in the vision; c)
communication of high performance expectations of followers and confidence in
their ability to contribute to the collective; d) display of self-confidence,
confidence in followers, and confidence in the attainment of the vision; e)
display of integrity; f) expressions of concern for the interests of followers
and the collective; g) positive evaluation of followers and the collective; h)
instrumental and symbolic behaviors that emphasize and reinforce the values
inherent in the collective vision; i) role modelling behaviors that set a
personal example of the values inherent in the collective vision; j)
frame-alignment behaviors--behaviors intended to align followers' attitudes,
schemata, and frames with the values of the collective vision; and, k)
behaviors that arouse follower motives relevant to the pursuit of the vision.
We refer to these behaviors collectively as the value based leader
This specification of value based leader behaviors integrates the behaviors
specified in prior extensions of the 1976 theory of charismatic leadership as
well as behaviors specified in other theories of charismatic,
transformational and visionary leadership. House and Shamir (1993) provide
the rationale for inclusion of the above behaviors in the theoretical leader
Axioms are statements, the validity of which are taken for granted, either
because the enjoy substantial empirical evidence or becuse they cannot be
tested. Axioms provide a foundation for more specific statements, such as
propositions. The axioms stated here provide the foundation for the
selection of leader behaviors from among all of the leader behaviors
specified in the various theories described above.
Axioms Concerning Human Motivation
1. Humans tend to be not only pragmatic and goal-oriented, but are also
self-expressive. It is assumed that behavior is not only instrumental-
calculative, but also expressive of feelings, aesthetic values and self-
concepts. We "do" things because of who we "are," because by doing them we
establish and affirm an identity for ourselves, at times even when our
behavior does not serve our materialistic or pragmatic self-interests.
2. People are motivated to maintain and enhance their generalized self-
efficacy and self-worth. Generalized self-efficacy is based on a sense of
competence, power, or ability to cope with and control one's environment.
Self-worth is based on a sense of virtue and moral worth and is grounded in
norms and values concerning conduct.
3. People are also motivated to retain and increase their sense of self-
consistency. Self-consistency refers to correspondence among components of
the self-concept at a given time, to continuity of the self-concept over
time, and to correspondence between the self-concept and behavior. People
derive a sense of "meaning" from continuity between the past, the present and
the projected future, and from the correspondence between their behavior and
4. Self-concepts are composed of values, perceptions of self-worth,
efficacy, and consistency, and also identities. Identities, sometimes
referred to as role-identities, link the self-concept to society. Social
identities locate the self in socially recognizable categories such as
nations, organizations and occupations, thus enabling people to derive
meaning from being linked to social collectives.
5. Humans can be strongly motivated by faith. When goals cannot be clearly
specified or the subjective probabilities of accomplishment and rewards are
not high, people may be motivated by faith because being hopeful in the sense
of having faith in a better future is an intrinsically satisfying condition.
6. When individual motives are aroused in the interest of the collective
effort, and when individual identify with the values inherent in the collective
vision, they will evaluate themselves on the basis of the degree to which they
contribute to the collective effort. Under conditions of motive arousal and
value identiication individuals experience intrinsic satisfaction from their
contribution to the collective effort and intrinsic dissatisfaction from
failure to contribute to collective efforts.
These axioms incorporate the extensions of the 1976 theory of charismatic
leadership offered by Shamir, House and Arthur (1993), and House and Shamir
(1995) and provide the integrative framework for the Value Based Theory of
The theory is expressed in the form of twenty-seven propositions which assert
specific ways in which leader motives and behaviors, in conjunction with
situational variables, affect follower motivation and performance and
organizational performance. These propositions are based on the leadership
and psychological theories reviewed above and reflect the extensions of the
1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership contributed by House et al. (1991),
Shamir et al. (1993), House and Shamir (1993), and Waldman, Ramirez and House
Propositions Concerning Leader Behavior and Its Effects
1. The motivational effects of the behaviors of the value based leader behavior
syndrome described above will be heightened follower recognition of shared
values between leaders and followers, heightened arousal of follower motives,
heightened follower self-confidence, generalized self-efficacy and self-worth,
strong follower self-engagement in the pursuit of the collective vision and in
contributing to the collective, and strong follower identification with the
collective and the collective vision. We refer to these psychological reactions
of followers as the value based motive syndrome .
2. The behavioral effects of the value based motive syndrome will be heightened
commitment to the collective as manifested by follower willingness to exert
effort above and beyond normal position or role requirements, follower
self-sacrifice in the interest of the vision and the collective, and increased
collective social cohesion and organizational collaboration. We refer to these
effects as the value based follower commitment syndrome. While the
value based motive syndrome described in proposition one is not directly
observable, the behaviors of the value based follower commitment syndrome are.
Propositions Concerning Leader Attributes
3. Self-confidence and a strong conviction in the moral correctness of one's
beliefs will be predictive of proactive leadership. This proposition is a
slight modification of proposition three of the 1976 Theory of Charismatic
Leadership. This proposition has been supported by Smith (1982), House et
al. (1991), and Howell and Higgins (1991).
4. Strong leader concern for the morally responsible exercise of power will
be predictive of constructive, collectively oriented exercise of social
influence by leaders and predictive of the value based motive and follower
commitment syndromes specified in propositions 1 and 2 above.
5. Power motivation coupled with a strong concern for the morally
responsible exercise of power will be predictive of the constructive,
collective-oriented exercise of social influence by leaders.
6. Power motivation, unconstrained by a strong concern for the moral
exercise of power, will be predictive of impetuously aggressive and self-
aggrandizing exercise of social influence.
7. Power motivation, in conjunction with a strong concern for the moral
exercise of power, will be predictive of effective leadership when the role
demands of leaders require substantial delegation of authority and
responsibility and the exercise of social influence.
8. Power motivation, unconstrained by a strong concern for the moral
exercise of power, will be predictive of effective leadership when the role
demands of leaders require strong individual competitiveness, aggressiveness,
manipulative and exploitive behavior, or the exercise of substantial
9. Affiliative motivation will be predictive of non-assertive leadership,
close relationships with a small subgroup of followers, partiality toward
this subgroup, and ineffective leadership.
10. The leader motive profile will be predictive of proactive leadership and
leader effectiveness when the role demands of leaders require substantial
delegation of authority and responsibility and the exercise of social
11. Achievement motivation will be predictive of effective leader
performance in entrepreneurial contexts and for small task-oriented groups in
which members have direct interaction with the leader.
12. Achievement motivation will be predictive of ineffective leader
performance for the leadership of organizations in which the role demands of
leaders require substantial delegation of authority and responsibility and
the exercise of substantial social influence.
Propositions four through twelve are derived from the motivation theories
Propositions Concerning Specific Leader Behaviors
13. Leader behaviors intended to enhance followers cognitive abilities will
increase follower and overall organizational performance when such behaviors
complement formal organizational practices and the informal social system by
providing direction, clarification, feedback, encouragement, support, and
motivational incentives to subordinates which are not otherwise provided.
14. When leader behaviors intended to enhance followers cognitive abilities
are redundant with formal organizational practices and the informal social
system they will be viewed as excessively controlling, will cause follower
dissatisfaction, and will be resented and resisted.
15. To be accepted by followers, it is necessary for leaders to be perceived
by followers as acting in the interest of the collective and the followers,
to be perceived as fair and trustworthy in their interactions with followers,
and to be perceived as not self-aggrandizing.
16. Leader support behavior will be predictive of low follower stress, trust
in by followers, and follower satisfaction with their relationships with
17. Leader contingent recognition and approval will be predictive of
follower role clarity, follower perceptions of leaders as fair, and
heightened follower satisfaction and motivation.
18. Directive leader behavior will result in follower role clarification but
will be dysfunctional when followers prefer to exercise independent actions
and initiative, are highly involved in their work, and/or perceive themselves
as having requisite knowledge and skills for effective task performance.
19. Participative leader behavior will result in follower role clarification
and will be functional when followers prefer to exercise independent actions
and initiative, are highly involved in their work, and/or when followers
perceive themselves as having requisite knowledge and skills for effective
20. Leader fairness behavior will be predictive of follower acceptance of
leaders, and the leader's vision and values.
21. Perceived lack of fairness will result in follower resentment and
resistance to the leaders vision and directions. These propositions are
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